Peter Paul Rubens - Three Men in Profile, 1600-1608

Peter Paul Rubens (Siegen, Germany, 1577 - 1640, Antwerp, Belgium)

Three Men in Profile, after Mantegna, The Triumph of Caesar, 1600-1608

Black and red chalk with yellow and green wash and white heightening, laid down on card covered with blue Venetian paper now turned green, 41.6 x 35 cm (16 3/8 x 13 3/4 in.)


Object details

Accession number



  • Peter Paul Rubens (Siegen, Germany, 1577 - 1640, Antwerp, Belgium) - primary
  • Andrea Mantegna (Padua province, about 1431 - 1506, Mantua) - artist


Purchased by Isabella Stewart Gardner from the art dealer Antonio Carrer (d. 1912), Venice, for 200 lire on 28 September 1897, in the presence of Bernard Berenson who attributed the drawing to Rubens and advised Gardner to buy it.


Inscribed in pencil (verso of the green paper backing): 3001. disegno autentico di P.P. Rubens.
Inscribed in ink (verso of the frame): bought by me in Venice / of Antonio Carrer 1897 / Isabella Stewart Gardner
Stamped in ink (verso of the frame): ANTONIO CARRER / EBANISTA-INTAGLIATORE / E ANTIQUARIO / S. Eustachio N. 2062 / VENEZIA
Inscribed in pencil (verso of the frame): Dessin ant Mantegna de P.P. Rubens / Etude de têtes


Catalogue. Fenway Court. (Boston, 1903), p. 16. (as Three heads from Mantegna's Triumph of Caesar, as by Rubens)
Gilbert Wendel Longstreet and Morris Carter. General Catalogue (Boston, 1935), p. 190 (as follower of Rubens).
Philip Hendy. Catalogue of the Exhibited Paintings and Drawings (Boston, 1931), p. 232 (as seventeeth-century or later copy after Mantegna).
Ludwig Burchard and Roger d'Hulst. Rubens Drawings, vol. 1 (Brussels, 1963), pp. 40-41, no. 21, ill. (as Rubens, dated 1600-08).
David Rosand. "Rubens Drawings." The Art Bulletin 48 (June 1966), p. 241, n. 40 (as Rubens).
Rollin van N. Hadley (ed.). Drawings: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum (Boston, 1968), pp. 29-30 no. 13, ill. (as Rubens).
G. Martin. National Gallery Catalogues, The Flemish School, circa 1600-circa 1900 (London, 1970), pp. 164, 168 n. 7 and 8.
M. Bernhard. Handzeichnungen (Munich, 1977), p. 156, ill. (as Rubens).
Michael Jaffé. Rubens and Italy (Oxford, 1977), p. 42, pl. 104 (as Rubens).
H. Mielke and M. Winner. Peter Paul Rubens. Kritischer Katalog der Zeichnungen. Originale—Umkreis—Kopien (Die Zeichnungen alter Meister im Berliner Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen preussischer Kulturbesitz) (Berlin, 1977), pp. 37-38, under no. 6 (as Rubens).
Julius S. Held. The Oil Sketches of Peter Paul Rubens. A Critical Catalogue, vol. 1 (Princeton, 1980), p. 598, n. 2 (as Rubens).
Walter Liedtke. Flemish Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. 1 (New York, 1984), pp. 168-69 (as Rubens).
Roger d'Hulst and M. Vandenven. Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard III. Old Testament (London, 1989), p. 226-27 under no. 67, n. 23 (as Rubens).
Michael Jaffé. Rubens: catalogo completo (Milan, 1989), p. 164 under no. 83 (as Rubens).
Giuseppe M. Pilo. "Rubens e l'eredità del Rinascimento italiano." In Didier Bodart (ed.). Pietro Paolo Rubens (1577-1640). Exh. cat. (Padua: Palazzo della ragione, 1990), pp. 24-26, ill. (as Rubens).
Giuseppe M. Pilo. Rubens e l'eredità veneta (Rome, 1990), pp. 58-61, 105 n. 60, fig. 27 (as Rubens).
Kristin Belkin. "Rubens and Early Netherlandish Art." Acta Historiae Artium 44 (November 2003), p. 272 n. 24 (as Rubens).
Jeremy Wood. Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard XXVI (2.1). Copies and Adaptations from Renaissance and Later Artists. Italian Masters I. Raphael and his School (London, 2010), vol. 1 pp. 66-67, 70, 339.
Jeremy Wood. Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard XXVI (2.2). Copies and Adaptations from Renaissance and Later Artists. Italian Masters II. Titian and North Italian Art (London, 2010), vol. 1 pp. 72, 86, 90-92 no. 105; vol. 2 fig. 15 (as Rubens).

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