¹After Japan, the Gardners visited China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar), and India.
² Douglas Sladen, Club Hotel Guide to Japan (Yokohama, 1891), quoted in Alan Hockley, “Globetrotter Tourism.” Globetrotter’s Japan: Places: Foreigners on the Tourist Circuit in Meiji Japan. MIT Visualizing Cultures, 2010.
³ Christine Guth has written compellingly of the many implications of foreigners dressing in Japanese clothing in late-nineteenth-century Japan, an act she characterized as a kind of cultural cross-dressing. See Chistine Guth, Longfellow’s Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting, and Japan (Seattle, 2004), 121-41.
⁴ Alan Chong and Noriko Murai, eds. Journeys East: Isabella Stewart Gardner and Asia (Boston, 2009), 20.
⁶Antoni Esplugas Gual, Josep (known as J.E. Puig) based in Calle Escudillers, Barcelona; won third class medal for his portraits at the 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition. The Barcelona Universal Exposition took place from Apr 8 – Dec 9, 1888
⁷the first official poster announcing the fair was published in 1890 after Isabella’s visit